List of Figures

Figure 1. John Ross, ‘Passage through the ice’, taken from: A Voyage of Discovery, 1819. Reproduced courtesy of the British Library.

Figure 2. ‘Podróż do Bieguna Północnego’, Magazyn Powszechny. Użytecznych Wiadomości, 1835.
Reproduced courtesy of Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie, Poland.

Figure 3. ‘Fridtjof Nansen und seine Nordpolexpedition‘, Der hinkende Bot, Vol. 171, 1898.
Reproduced courtesy of Kantonsbibliothek Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Switzerland.

Figure 4. ‘Kurze Uebersicht der merkwürdigsten Ereignisse’, Der hinkende Bot, Vol. 94, 1815.
Reproduced courtesy of Kantonsbibliothek Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Switzerland.

Figure 5a. Caricature of Cruikshank 'Landing the Treasure'.
Wellcome Collection. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Figure 5b. Detail of: Caricature of Cruikshank 'Landing the Treasure'.
Wellcome Collection. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Figure 6a. Illustrierte Wiener Extrablatt, 1874.
Reproduced courtesy of ANNO/Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Austria, in cooperation with Google.

Figures 6b and 6c. ‘Illustrationen zu einem demnächst erscheinenden Werke über die Nordpol-Expedition‘, Figaro, 1874.
Reproduced courtesy of ANNO/Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Austria.

Figure 7. Şehbal 15 Teşrin-i Evvel 1325, 28 October 1909.
Reproduced courtesy of the Atatürk Kitaplığı, Turkey.

Figures 8a. and 8b. Types de la Russie du Nord 1 (Moscow).
Reproduced courtesy of Dr Marisa Karyl Franz.

Figures 9a. and 9b. Types de la Russie du Nord 2.
Reproduced courtesy of Dr Anna Gielas.

Figure 10. Samoyed (Archangelsk).
Reproduced courtesy of Dr Marisa Karyl Franz.

Figures 11a. and 11b. Samoyed (Moscow).
Reproduced courtesy of Dr Anna Gielas.

Figure 12. Figure 13. Jules Verne: Kaptan Hatras’ın Sergüzeşti, Alem Press, 1308 (1891).
Reproduced courtesy of the İ.B.B. Atatürk Kitaplığı, Istanbul, Turkey.

Figure 13. Figure 13. Jules Verne: Kaptan Hatras’ın Sergüzeşti, Alem Press, 1308 (1891).
Reproduced courtesy of the İ.B.B. Atatürk Kitaplığı, Istanbul, Turkey.

Figure 14a. Head of the celebrated Esquimaux dog. Lithograph by H. Hawkins.
Wellcome Collection. Public Domain Mark

Figure 14b. Detail of: Head of the celebrated Esquimaux dog. Lithograph by H. Hawkins.
Wellcome Collection. Public Domain Mark

Figure 15. ‘In the middle of the Ocean’.
Reproduced courtesy of Dr Marisa Karyl Franz.

‘Figure 16. Podróż do Bieguna Północnego’, Magazyn Powszechny. Użytecznych Wiadomości, 1835.
Reproduced courtesy of Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie, Poland.

Figure 17. Jules Verne: Kaptan Hatras’ın Sergüzeşti, Alem Press, 1308 (1891).
Reproduced courtesy of the İ.B.B. Atatürk Kitaplığı, Istanbul, Turkey.